what is double-sided PCB?
A double-sided PCB is made up of both sides of a curved surface. The two sides are connected by a pair of parallel shaped holes. Compared to single-sided PCBs, this type of board is ideal for various applications. However, when the complexity of the circuit requires a certain level of consistency, the double-sided boards are not always the best choice.
A double-sided printed circuit board, also known as DSPT or double sided plating thru, is a type of electronic device that is commonly used in high-technology applications. This type of board allows for closer routing traces by alternating the top and bottom layers using vias.
advantages of double-sided PCB
Double sided PCBs are a great choice due to their flexibility and ease of use. They also offer better circuit density than single-sided PCBs. These are made using a double layer process which means that they have more capacity.
Due to the increased space, double sided PCBs are ideal for various electronic systems, such as car dashboards and LED lights. They also reduce the production cost by making them smaller. Double sided PCB advantages list below:
- Make out smaller size of PCB
- Cost effiecient
- Make out higher density PCB
- Design more flexible than single sided PCB
double-sided PCB applicaiton:
Where are double sided PCBs used? Double-sided PCB are common used in various equipment around us today, Such as below:
- Traffic systems
- Vending machines
- Phone systems
- Hard drives
- Power conversion
- HVAC systems
- Power supplies
- Industrial controls
- Car dashboards
- LED lighting systems
What is the difference between single sided and double sided PCB?
Single Sided PCBs feature:
Printed circuit boards, also known as PCBs, are commonly used to connect various electronic components. These boards are typically used in a wide range of electronic devices. One type of circuit board is a single-sided printed circuit board, which has conductive components on one side and conductive wiring on the other. These types of boards are very simple to make and are typically produced in a very short time.
Single Sided PCBs advantages as follow:
Single-sided PCBs are very cost-effective to produce. Due to their simple and basic designs, these types of PCBs are commonly used in various applications. They are the ideal choice for low density and simple circuit designs.
Due to the lower complexity of single-sided PCBs, they are more commonly used in various electronic applications. This eliminates the need for additional steps during the manufacturing process, which can help boost the production speeds of these boards.
Single-sided PCBs are cheaper than double-sided PCBs in bulk orders.
Double Sided PCBs feature:
Unlike single-sided PCBs, double-sided PCBs have two-sided traces that are separated by a bottom and top layer. This allows them to have conductive components and copper on both sides, which allows them to have a higher density of circuits. Unfortunately, making these types of PCBs is more complex than making single-sided ones, and it can be more challenging to produce. Despite these disadvantages, the benefits of using double-sided PCBs outweigh the drawbacks.
double Sided PCBs advantages as follow:
Double sided boards are commonly used to add more components to a circuit, which increases its density. This allows you to place more components in the design, and provides you with more space for additional connections.
Compared to single-sided circuits, double-sided boards use more complex circuitry due to the additional space they have. This makes them ideal for demanding and advanced electronics.
Being able to use both sides of a board allows you to reduce the size of the board. This eliminates the need for additional equipment and lowers the cost of PCBs.
design of double-sided pcb
A double-sided printed circuit board is commonly used in combination with a single-sided or multi-layered board. To create a fully functional double-sided board, you’ll need to create an electronics design that includes a high-quality, electronic schematic. This will show designers how the various elements of your circuit link together to form a complete device. Besides the power and ground planes, you’ll also need to specify other ground plane and power connections on your board.
Before you start creating a fully functional double-sided board, it’s important that you capture the details of your design in a layout that’s easy to understand. You’ll also need to start arranging the components in a way that’s compliant with the mechanical and routing constraints of your packaging.
How do you make a double sided PCB?
This section describes the various steps involved in creating a double-sided board using a solder mask and bare copper. It also includes a component legend and the gold-plated contacts.
1. Preparing Material
Before a manufacturer begins working on a project, they first gather information about the traveler, such as the number of panels and their sizes. This allows them to prepare the materials needed to make the PCBs. Most of the materials used in the production of PCBs are copper-clad epoxy glass.
Besides the type of materials used, the characteristics of the brand and the materials it uses also affect the stability and safety of the PCBs. For instance, FR4 is a flame retardant material that is commonly used in the production of PCBs. This type of board is very economical and can maintain the stability of the PCBs under extremely hot conditions.
Although FR4 is generally not suitable for high-speed and high-frequency PCBs, it can be used in certain applications such as LED lighting. For instance, aluminum, copper, and metal are commonly used as the substrates for LED PCB.
The next step is to determine the size of the board that will be used. Since there are various sizes of raw PCBs, it is important to cut them according to the requirements of the machines. After cutting, the board will be much larger than before. This is because the size of the board will not be dictated by the size of the circuits that will be used.
The circuit board is sent to an automatic drilling machine, which quickly creates holes in the board. The machine then changes the drill bits on its own.
As the process of drilling continues to improve, more holes can be produced with no burrs. However, most manufacturers use a deburring machine to remove the copper burns at the holes’ rim. This process also removes other oxides and fingerprints to create a smooth surface.
Through the holes, Cu is deposited through a process known as electroless copper deposition, which involves the use of epoxy. After the Cu is deposited, the panel is then dipped in acid dip and an anti-tarnish solution to prevent oxidation. This process is usually performed in two different ways: vertical and horizontal PTH. The vertical PTH is used for carbon deposition, while the horizontal PTH is for Cu. This process is very important in the production of multilayer PCB.
A negative image pattern is transferred to the surface of a printed circuit board (PCB) using photo imaging. The first step in this process is to cover the panel with a layer of photoresist. This material is usually a dry film plating resist, which is an ultraviolet light-sensitive photo polymer. After the film has been applied, the board is exposed to UV light.
The panels are placed in a series of plating racks, which are then subjected to a chemical bath to remove the copper pattern on the surface. After that, the panels are submerged in a copper solution. The solution and the panels have polarities, which cause copper ions to migrate to different areas of the surface. This results in the desired copper thickness being deposited.
After the panels are electroplated, they are moved from bath to bath. The pattern is then covered with additional copper. This is done through the use of tin or lead solder.
The panels are placed in a spray machine or tank to remove the imaging material. The resist is then stripped off using a process known as resist stripping. After the strip is removed, the panels are placed in a batch tank, which is composed of a chemical etchant that doesn’t attack the copper underneath.
The etch resist is a type of metal plating that’s produced by using tin or lead. After the strip is removed, the copper circuitry pattern is revealed.
The solder mask is made of a thin layer of polymer that acts as an insulator between the two conducting lines. It prevents short circuits from forming. After it has dried, remove the excess solder mask from the circuit.
A film containing patterns of circuit is applied to the board. After passing through a UV chamber, the surface of the board is then cleaned. The solder mask over the circuit is maintained, while the other solder is hardened.
When copper gets exposed to oxidation, it can eventually become damaged. This is why it is important to apply a surface finish to protect it from getting damaged. There are various types of surface finishes that can be used, such as OSP, ENIG, ENEPIG, or HASL.
Gold Nickel Plating
Other types of plating finishes are commonly used for gold, but both gold and copper undergo solid state diffusion into one another. This process is accelerated by the temperature, which results in an increased contact resistance. This can cause the copper to migrate into the gold, which can corrode and cause it to tarnish.
A layer of nickel known as a barrier coating can be used between the gold and copper to minimize the effects of the gold on the copper track. This protective coating can reduce the number of pores and the effect of the gold on the copper.
This type of plating is commonly used as a backing for gold, and it provides an effective barrier between the copper and gold. It can also resist corrosion and heat, making it an ideal choice for various applications. Despite its high cost, this type of plating can still be considered a durable and environmentally stable solution.
Nickel or gold plating has been commonly used on the edges and keyboard contacts of various types of devices, such as keyboards and edge fingers. This type of coating can provide a corrosion-resistant and conductive surface.
The labels found on the PCBs are known as silkscreens, and they can be used to mark various components. When the PCBs are placed into a giant printer, the resulting labels are then printed. The colors of these are usually white, but some can also be used in different colors.
The Flying probe test is a simple procedure that involves placing multiple probes over a circuit’s connections. The current then passes through the wires. This test is conducted to check if the circuit is working properly. For instance, if there are no connections between two paths, then the present should not pass.
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